Planning, Sustainability and Nature
Dave Counsell, Rob Stoneman
Why it is important to plan for the natural environment at a whole landscape scale and to connect wildlife habitats together? Why do planners need to look beyond protecting particular species and their habitats? Why should planners help nature to recolonise towns and cities and how best can they do this? In seeking to answer such questions, this book provides a grounding for planners and other related professionals in the key concepts associated with biodiversity and the natural environment, and in how to apply them in practice. It looks at how natural environment policy has shifted from the protection of rare species and nature reserves to a more holistic approach, based on biodiversity. Beginning with a brief history of environmental movements, the guide then focuses on changing approaches to conserving the natural environment. It explains environmental sustainability approaches as well as techniques for planners, using ideas such as environmental capacity and natural capital and, more recently, ecosystem services and multi-functional solutions. It addresses issues of spatial scale, connectivity, and ecological networks, recognising that small nature reserves are vulnerable and lack resilience to change. Other key topics include rebuilding biodiversity through habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration, along with the "re-naturing" of cities. The tools and policy are set out before identifying key lessons and implications for future policy development and planning practice.